A variety of diseases have been recognised within free ranging Australian mammals. The purpose of this document is to review the diseases that occur often within particular species or taxonomic groups of native mammals. We hope that this information assists with the timely recognition of common parasites, microbes, intoxicants and injuries to accelerate the appropriate care and welfare of wildlife. Throughout the text we offer advice towards achieving a diagnosis. As best-practice wildlife treatments change rapidly over time, treatment of wildlife in a rehabilitation situation should be made in consultation with a veterinary professional.